However, human activities are resulting in biodiversity loss and changes to ecosystems, which threatens the supply of key services. Further understanding of the mechanisms that link plant and microbial functional traits is essential to achieve this. During the past several decades, grassland degradation has become one of the most important ecological and economic issues in this region. Accurate monitoring of plant traits even under varying carbon dioxide concentrations. Semi-natural grasslands have the highest species diversity, which has also positive impact on range of provisioning services, e.g. These transformations (ecosystem services) support and enrich human life, but are often overlooked in decisi… While much ES research has focused on forests and wetlands, synthesizing the currently somewhat sporadic studies of grassland ecosystem services (GESs) is much needed. Until now they have mainly been analysed as agro-ecosystems for animal production but this book looks beyond the role of grassland as a feeding ground, and evaluates other important processes such as carbon sequestration in… Grassland Ecosystems, World Resources Institute, Washington D.C. ... broad array of ecosystem goods and services that people need, or enjoy, but do not buy in the marketplace. Extensively managed grasslands are recognized globally for their high biodiversity and their social and cultural values. They further allow a high temporal resolution including spatially explicit information. Grassland ecosystems provide humans with ecosystem services such as net primary production, carbon sequestration and carbon sinks, climate regulation, water and soil conservation, windbreaks and sand fixation (Zhao et al., 2004a, Yu et al., 2005). For example, in grasslands, C4 grasses and legumes tend to promote greater soil carbon accumulation . Grassland Ecosystem is an area where the vegetation is dominated by grasses and other herbaceous (non-woody) plants. Extensively managed grasslands are recognized globally for their high biodiversity and their social and cultural values. Moreover, species identities influence ecosystem services , such that the order in which species are lost from ecosystems could influence the quantitative responses of ecosystem services, like carbon storage. This traditional approach is restricted to sampling plots and harvest dates, while hyperspectral approaches provide new opportunities as they are rapid, non-destructive and cost-effective. These include provisioning services (food, water), regulating services (waste water treatment, pollution control), supporting services (shelter), and cultural services (recreation and tourism). Cultivated grasslands have much lower carbon sequestration capacity, which is important service for regulation of global climate. Ecosystem services derive from ecosystem functions and rely on complex interactions among a diversity of organisms. New research has demonstrated how, in contrast to encroachment by the invasive alien tree species Prosopis julifora (known as Mathenge -in Kenya or Promi in Baringo), restoration of grasslands in tropical semi-arid regions can both mitigate the impacts of climate change and restore key benefits usually provided by healthy grasslands for pastoralists and agro-pastoralist communities. Aesthetic beauty is one example of an ecosystem service provided on the grasslands for which there is no substitute. Permanent grasslands usually have higher species diversity, thus providing higher supply with herbs for medicine, materials for cosmetics and honey. grasslands, forests, mires) provide to humans, and they include provisional (goods that can directly be used by humans), regulating (benefits gained from processes in nature) and cultural (non- material) services. Moreover the magnitude of the ecosystem services can be also influenced by the abiotic properties of the ecosystem, such as soil fertility, moisture and relief. Furthermore, in addition to the regulating services provided by other permanent grasslands, the semi-natural grasslands have higher contribution to maintenance of habitats for engendered species and pollinators. Permanent grasslands usually have higher species diversity, thus providing higher supply with herbs for medicine, materials for cosmetics and honey. Different grasslands that serve different benefits for people. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.111273. First hyperspectral analysis within a free air carbon dioxide enrichment study. The influences of increased [CO2]s ([eCO2]s) are typically investigated in Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) studies via destructive sampling methods. However, their capacity to deliver multiple ecosystem services (ES) as parts of agricultural systems is surprisingly understudied compared to other production systems. Provisioning services from grassland ecosystems are strongly linked to physical and chemical grassland traits, which are affected by atmospheric CO2concentrations ([CO2]s). Also the grassland management practices are determining the relative mix of different ecosystem services: Cultivate grasslands provide the highest yields of the fodder for feeding of the animals as well as the amount of the milk and meat products, but the range of other ecosystem services is much lower compared to permanent and semi-natural grasslands. Moreover, we show how hyperspectral predictions can be used e.g., within a future phenotyping approach, to monitor the grassland on a spatially explicit level and on a higher temporal resolution compared to conventional destructive sampling techniques. The grassland ecosystem itself influences soil formation, and this causes grassland soils to differ from other soils. Managing grasslands for selected, or multiple, ecosystem services will thus require a consideration of the joint effects of plant and soil communities. Grassland ecosystems are deeply affected by human activities and need appropriate management to optimise trade-offs between ecosystem functions and services. The influences of increased [CO2]s ([eCO2]s) are typically investigated in Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) studies via destructive sampling methods. New research has demonstrated how, in contrast to encroachment by the invasive alien tree species Prosopis julifora (known as Mathenge -in Kenya or … Permanent grasslands provide larger variety of ecosystem service, although the level of fodder production and amount of milk and meat products might be reduced compering to cultivated grasslands. The nature of grass litter and its pattern of decomposition commonly result in the development of a dark, organically rich upper soil layer that can reach 300 millimetres below the surface. The results indicate that 61.55% of respondents expressed a positive WTP. Grassland Ecosystem Services Arizona’s grassland ecosystems provide many services that directly or indirectly benefit society. Over 1 million visitors annually enjoy the ecosystem services provided on the National Grasslands. Ecosystem services are all those benefits that ecosystems (e.g. Economic valuation of grassland ecosystem services is important for protecting and restoring grassland ecosystems. quality and nutrition value of fodder, because of higher variety of micro-element, supply of honey, herbs for medicine and materials for cosmetics. Good to excellent predictive performances for 14 traits related to ecosystem services. Such ecosystems include, for example, agroecosystems, forest ecosystems, grassland ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems. Grasslands are a vitally important ecosystem, supporting a wide range of ecosystem services and high levels of biodiversity. Grasslands on steep slopes are more valuable with regard to providing service of erosion control comparing to grasslands on plains and usually have higher aesthetic value and tourism potential. LIFE13 ENV/LT/000189 is co-financed by the EU LIFE+ Programme, Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania, Administration of Latvian Environmental Protection Fund, Estonian Environmental Investment Centre and the project partners. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Grassland ecosystem services in a changing environment: The potential of hyperspectral monitoring. The management choices made by humans impact the types, magnitude, and the relative mix of services provided by ecosystems. ContextGrasslands provide a variety of ecosystem services (ESs) for humans. Performances of different hyperspectral normalisation techniques were investigated. It is also called transitional landscape … regulation of atmospheric gases, large scale filtration and purification of water). Among these are: • WATER The storage, cleansing and distribu-tion of available water resources are the most important services pro-vided by grasslands. Semi-natural grasslands can supply higher rates of cultural services, including the recreational, education, scientific, aesthetic and cultural heritage value. Ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and they depend on a well-functioning ecosystem and complex interactions among many organisms. Over the last twenty years, with the advent of improved data capture and analytic technologies, researchers and policy makers have become increasingly interested in quantifying the relationship between humans and the natural world. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 10 Kids explore the world of grassland insects Photo: Ilze Priedniece These are called ecosystem service trade-offs, which accrue when provision of one ecosystem service is reduced because of increased use of another service. This study aims to investigate Chinese netizens’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for protecting grassland ecosystem services in Inner Mongolia by using the contingent valuation method. The deterioration of alpine grassland has great impact on ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, the effect of grassland degradation on ecosystem services and the consequence of grassland deterioration on economic loss still remains a mystery. Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits to humans gifted by the natural environment and from healthy ecosystems. In this study we investigated the hyperspectral predictability of 14 grassland traits linked to forage quality and quantity within a FACE experiment in central Germany with three plots under ambient atmospheric [CO2]s, and three plots at [eCO2]s (∼20% above ambient [CO2]s). As a consequence, they have long been a focus for ecologists, playing host to some of the world's longest-running ecological experiments and providing the inspiration for many long-standing theories and debates. Updated on: 21 Jul 2020 by Tamanna Kalam Ecosystem services are all the processes and outputs that nature provides us with. For example, cultivated grasslands provide considerably less herbs for medicine and cosmetics, unless particular species are specially cultivated. The professional study of dry grasslands falls under the category of rangeland management, which focuses on ecosystem services associated with the grass-dominated arid and semi-arid rangelands of the world. Grassland ecosystems are deeply affected by human activities and need appropriate management to optimise trade-offs between ecosystem functions and services. Ecosystem services (ESs) and their transformations in northern China play a crucial role in regional sustainability. The concept of ecosystem services provides a framework for linking human benefits and well‐being to the underlying biophysical realm of ecosystem functioning (Díaz et al., 2018; Lavorel, et al., 2017). The project “Integrated planning tool to ensure viability of grasslands” (LIFE Viva Grass) No. By understanding the relationships between biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and the services humans receive from nature, we can anticipate how changes in land use will affect ecosystems and human wellbeing. Grasslands provide a variety of ecosystem services (ESs) for humans. Highlighting of capabilities to derive high resolution spatio-temporal canopy data. This research aims to address how land management and grazing regime interact to affect grassland ecosystem services under future climate variabilities, and the extent to which manipulation of grazing could serve as adaptations to enhance climate resilience of grasslands. So, in this study, we assessed four types of ecosystem services following the Millennium Ecosystem … However, their capacity to deliver multiple ecosystem services (ES) as parts of agricultural systems is surprisingly understudied compared to other production systems. Based on the information during the vegetation period we show how hyperspectral monitoring might be used e.g., to adapt harvest practices or gain deeper insights into physiological plant alterations under [eCO2]s. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Permanent grasslands have also much higher carbon sequestration capacity. The ecosystem is fragile and sensitive to climate change. For many, nature is a source of wonderment and … A range of species depend on the habitat, shelter, food, nesting opportunities, migration stopover areas, and winter cover found in grassland ecosystems. Ecosystem services which grasslands are expected to provide In this section, we review ecosystem services provided by semi-natural grasslands, even though not further quantified in the chapter 3. Ecosystems are complex interactions among living and non living components of the environment (e.g., forests, grasslands, marine ecosystems). We analysed the suitability of various normalisation and feature selection techniques to link comprehensive laboratory analyses with two years of hyperspectral measurements (spectral range 600–1600 nm). Grassland ecosystem not only provides essential ecological and life functions for human society but also plays a vital role in mitigating and adapting to climate change. For example, grasslands with higher soil fertility provides higher yields of fodder as well as higher capacity of nutrient absorption in soil, whereas grasslands with low soil fertility usually are more species rich, thus providing more herbs for medicine and habitats for species. Grassland in Qinghai as the main type of ecosystem in this region is located in arid and semi-arid areas. Urban Grassland Ecosystem Services. Of all the ecological services provided by grasslands, biological diversity is the most paramount. Permanent grasslands provide larger variety of ecosystem service, although the level of fodder production and amount of milk and meat products might be reduced compering to cultivated grasslands. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The five PAGE reports show that human action has pro-foundly changed the extent, condition, and capacity of all We evaluated the distribution of five ecosystem services: net primary productivity (NPP), soil conservation (SC), water yield (WY), water retention (WR), and livestock supply in the grassland and agro-pastoral transitional zone of China (GAPTZ) under the future climate scenarios of representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 in 2050. We applied partial least squares regression and found good to excellent predictive performances (0.49 ≤ leave one out cross-validation R2≤ 0.94), which depended on the normalisation method applied to the hyperspectral data prior to model training. Noteworthy, the models' predictive performances were not affected by the different [CO2]s, which was anticipated due to the altered plant physiology under [eCO2]s. Thus, an accurate monitoring of grassland traits under different [CO2]s (present-day versus future, or within a FACE facility) is promising, if appropriate predictors are selected. Grasslands support biodiversity. These interactions mediate processes that achieve major transformations of resources, many rivalling or exceeding what can be cost effectively achieved by humans (e.g. Also the supply of several regulating services is lower – such grasslands are less suitable as habitats for the species of high conservation value as well as for insects, which are providing pollination service. Denser sward of the permanent grasslands support erosion control on steep slopes as well as increase the nutrient absorption capacity and thus improving the water purification service. © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Provisioning services from grassland ecosystems are strongly linked to physical and chemical grassland traits, which are affected by atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]s). 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