What caused the Second Great Awakening? Soon after, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AME Zion) was founded as another denomination in New York City. The revivals also followed an arc of great emotional power, with an emphasis on the individual's sins and need to turn to Christ, and a sense of restoring personal salvation. In an effort to give sermons that would resonate with the congregation, ministers stressed Christ's humility and forgiveness, in what the historian Barbara Welter calls a "feminization" of Christianity. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. Start studying What were the causes and effects of the Second Great Awakening?. Spell. Use this page to find some basic information on the Great Awakening: what it was, what caused it, and what it influenced. The congregation went thru the motions when they were at church and this caused an uprising. "The Frontier Camp Meeting: Contemporary and Historical Appraisals, 1805–1840". Though its roots are in the First Great Awakening and earlier, a re-emphasis on Wesleyan teachings on sanctification emerged during the Second Great Awakening, leading to a distinction between Mainline Methodism and Holiness churches. In the early ninet… Birdsall, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order". Baptists and Methodists in the South preached to slaveholders and slaves alike. Converts were taught that to achieve salvation they needed not just to repent personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society, which meant eradicating sin in all its forms. Those who supported the revivalism and the New Measures were called “New Side” Presbyterians. [44] More active participation in politics by more segments of the population brought religious and moral issues into the political sphere. Young people (those under 25) also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert. [41] The influence of the Awakening continued in the form of more secular movements. This fear of secularism had arisen during the Enlightenment, which resulted in the First Great Awakening (1720–1745). [2] It rejected the skepticism, deism, Unitarianism, and rationalism left over from the American Enlightenment,[3] about the same time that similar movements flourished in Europe. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. The Second Great Awakening was caused by the separation of church and state, industrialism, and western expansion, which are all outside factors, ultimately showing that the Second Great Awakening’s purpose was to change personal life in order to fit rapidly changing America. The Methodist Church used circuit ridersto reach people in frontier locations. As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists. Nov. 21, 2020. It was partly spurred as a reaction to the French Revolution. The first informal camp meeting began in June, when people began camping on the grounds of the Red River Meeting House. The First Great Awakening Over the 18 th Century, the emerged evangelists from protestant denominations who rejected what seemingly formal and outwards expressions of worship in place of religious fervour. [32], Women, who made up the majority of converts during the Awakening, played a crucial role in its development and focus. It gave them people agency in their own religious lives that Calvinism had denied them. Matthews’s article also addresses prevailing scholarly views of the Second Great Awakening, though it should be noted that the article appeared in 1969. Known commonly as antebellum reform, this phenomenon included reforms against the consumption of alcohol, for women's rights and abolition of slavery, and a multitude of other issues faced by society. [33] Despite white attempts to control independent African-American congregations, especially after the Nat Turner uprising of 1831, a number of African-American congregations managed to maintain their separation as independent congregations in Baptist associations. These organizations were primarily sponsored by affluent women. "Falling for the Lord: Shame, Revivalism, and the Origins of the Second Great Awakening.". Adherents and interested parties would spend several days hearing the word of God from various religious leaders. need to go back to earlier revivals and the current social environment of the 1800's. Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America", Carwardine, Richard J. These "Great Awakenings" happened between the 18th and late 20th century … [35] Women also took crucial roles in the conversion and religious upbringing of children. STUDY. What is the 4 facts about the first great awaken had many effects on the colonies? The Second Great Awakening was unlike the first, in that many people were converted into different sects of Christianity through camp meetings and tent revivals. McGready was a stirring preacher and under his ministry an extensive awakening spread over north—central North Carolina after 1791. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Pietism was sweeping Germanic countries[4] and evangelicalism was waxing strong in England.[5]. The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.[22]. In northern New England, social activism took precedence; in western New York, the movement encouraged the growth of new denominations. Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. 1816. The Second Great Awakening began in the 1790s in the United States, and lasted until the 1840s. The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival that spread across the United States from the 1790s to the 1830s. The Enlightenment. [14] Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly. 1832. Beecher became president of the new Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio who trained more evangelical to join the revival. While Protestant religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening strengthened the role it would play. The Second Great Awakening had a tremendous effect on American society by spawning a large number of social reform movements. The second great awakening was a religious revival in America. Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, Elizabeth J.Clapp, and Julie Roy Jeffrey, ed., Women, Dissent and Anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790–1865, (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 13–14, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in Clio's Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. [24]:368, Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. What is visual communication and why it matters; Nov. 20, 2020. A second distinguishing feature of nineteenth-century evangelicalism was its approach to religious revivals. What was the Great Awakening? [16][17] Presbyterians and Methodists initially worked together to host the early camp meetings, but the Presbyterians eventually became less involved because of the noise and often raucous activities that occurred during the protracted sessions. Kentucky was also influenced by a … By the late 1840s, however, the great day had receded to the distant future, and postmillennialism became a more passive religious dimension of the wider middle-class pursuit of reform and progress. A revival known as the Second Great Awakening began in New England in the 1790s. Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians. Gravity. These groups were unsatisfied with the already established faiths and created their own doctrines. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. [3] As the most effective form of evangelizing during this period, revival meetings cut across geographical boundaries. Postmillennialist theology dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 19th century. [37] Through women's positions in these organizations, women gained influence outside of the private sphere. Tent revivals were hallmarks of this historical movement. [28] Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. A year later, in August 1801, an even larger sacrament occasion that is generally considered to be America's first camp meeting was held at Cane Ridge in Bourbon County, Kentucky, under Barton W. Stone (1772–1844) with numerous Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist ministers participating in the services. A second distinguishing feature of nineteenth-centuryevangelicalism was its approach to religious revivals. The term “Great Awakening” describes a period of religious fervor, and that’s the core component of the Second Great Awakening. [26] The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women's organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.[27]. The Second Great Awakening was a U.S. religious revival that began in the late eighteenth century and lasted until the middle of the nineteenth century. New religious groups also resulted from the revivals. The Second Great Awakening changed Americans' understanding of their relationship with God. The Second Great Awakening consisted of many forms of religious revivals and religious reform groups offering salvation for all. Second Great Awakening. 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