In 2007 a single adult was found at 3,800 ft. (1158 meters) on Bohemotash Mountain in Shasta County. The salamander measured SVL 56 mm (2¼ in.). Shasta Salamanders are limestone cave and rock outcrop specialists is very dry habitat. Pacific Giant Salamander. The shape of the response curves indicated that the number of Shasta salamanders per grid cell per site visit was highest in the spring, in cells that had a high percent of cover, with the temperature between 3 - 8 C, and the cumulative rainfall for the previous five days > 1.5 cm. Salamanders seek refuge during the day under cover because it provides moisture and protection from predators (Keen 1982). Richard Highton suggests that Hydromantes shastae consists of two species. Webbed toes make it easier for Shasta Salamanders to climb slippery vertical rocks. Shasta Black Salamander - Aneides iecanus Klamath Black Salamander - Aneides klamathensis) Orange: Aneides flavipunctatus niger- Santa Cruz Black Salamander: Red: Aneides lugubris - Arboreal Salamander: Red: Aneides vagrans - Wandering Salamander : Greenhorn Mountains Slender Salamander: For decades, organizations wanting to provide more water to Central Valley farmers have tried to raise the height of the dam. Related Posts. The black salamander is the strongest salamander and can be caught using the Hunter skill at level 67, using a small fishing net and a rope to set a trap on a tree. A trio of salamander species in Northern California could complicate a controversial $1.4 billion public works project to heighten the Shasta Dam, the state's largest reservoir. The mean cumulative distance moved was 15 m. However, 60% of the cumulative distances moved by animals were less than 15 m. Nine salamanders were recaptured in the same place one to three times and had a cumulative movement distance of zero meters. When this study was initiated in 1999, there were 21 known sites of occurrence for the Shasta salamander and all of these localities were within a 27 km radius of the town of O'Brien, Shasta County, California (Lewendal 1995). Noun 1. Pronunciation of Shasta salamander and its etymology. Gray-green, beige, tan, or reddish on back, tail yellow to yellow-orange. Add an Observation. NOTE: Results on this page have not been peer reviewed (DO NOT CITE). For further exploring for "shasta salamander" in Webster Dictionary Online A unique identifying set of marks was given to each animal using visual implant fluorescent elastomer (Northwest Marine Technologies, Shaw Island, Washington), which was injected subcutaneously with a hand-held syringe into the ventral surface of the animal. California Fish and Game 94[2):119-121. The black salamander is the strongest salamander that can be caught using the Hunter skill at level 67 Hunter, giving 319 experience per catch. Lewendal, P. 1995. The genetic data were analyzed by Larson et al. They live deep in cracks in the rock where humidity … The longest distance moved by a female was 97.5 m, with two months separating the two capture dates. What does shasta salamander mean? Shasta Black Salamander (Aneides iecanus) 0 comments. Defense mechanisms include raising up the head and tail and flattening the body, producing sticky toxic skin secretions, and tightly coiling the body and tail and rolling downhill (the same escape tactic used by other. Cover object searches were conducted on a 2,750 square meter grid near Samwell Cave, in Shasta County, California. Why Hydromantes/Speleomantes are found only in Europe and California is still a biogeographical mystery. The recently described Samwel Shasta salamander was named for its original discovery site, Samwel Cave, and the Wintu Shasta salamander is named for the original habitants of the region, the Winnemem Wintu tribe. Shasta salamander has the smallest range of any Pacific Northwest amphibian (Herman 2003). Stebbins, R. C. 1985. The Los Angeles Times reports Wednesday that two environmental groups filed a federal lawsuit last month asking a judge to force the U.S. Related words - Shasta salamander synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. The longest distance moved was 104 m by an adult male, with one year and four months separating the two captures. Found around cliff faces, vertical cavern walls and level ground in mixed forests of Douglas fir, pines, and oaks. The percents of captures in each age class for the 2001-2002 field season were 19% juveniles, 34% sub-adults, and 47% adults; these were not significantly different from the previous year (P=0.09). Fish and Wildlife Service to determine if Shasta salamanders should be … Information and translations of shasta salamander in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Second time recaptures were fewer (24%), with three animals recaptured three times (4%). With regards to coloration, Shasta Co. black salamanders have a black coloration with numerous small white spots , while Klamath watershed black salamanders generally retain the juvenile xanthophore pigments into adulthood, which gives them a green, gold, or … Add an Observation. Management recommendations for Shasta salamander (, Nauman, R. S. and D. H. Olson. Like other Hydromantes(web-toed salamanders), the Shasta salamander has webbed toes and very long projectile tongue.It reaches a maximum size of about 87 mm snout-vent length, or 110 mm total length. Ecology 63: 94-102. The status of the Shasta salamander (. At present there are 61 known sites of occurrence and it is thought that these represent less than 20 populations of Shasta salamanders (Nauman and Olson, 2004). During the 2001-2002 season juveniles were found beginning in late November, but they were not captured in great numbers until February. The study site is bordered by a ridgeline, limestone rock outcrops and cliffs, and an intermittent creek. Preference was demonstrated for rock cover objects. Shasta Salamander - Hydromantes shastae - Gorman and Camp, 1953 Samwel Shasta Salamander - Hydromantes samweli - Bingham, Papenfuss, Lindstrand III, and Wake, 2018 Wintu Shasta Salamander - Hydromantes wintu - Bingham, Papenfuss, Lindstrand III, and Wake, 2018 * Robert E. Bingham, Theodore J. Papenfuss, Len Lindstrand III, and David B. We supply surf wear such as T-Shirts, Hoodies, board shorts and headwear. Read More. Highest surface activity occurred in the spring. Habitat selection and interspecific competition in two species of plethodontid salamanders. The study was conducted immediately down slope of Samwell Cave, on the McCloud River arm of Shasta Lake, in Shasta County, California, on lands managed by the Shasta-Trinity National Forest. FILE - In this Jan. 12, 2017 file photo, water flows from five of the gates on Shasta Dam for the first time in six years. Shasta salamander synonyms, Shasta salamander pronunciation, Shasta salamander translation, English dictionary definition of Shasta salamander. Harralander tar is used as ammunition for the salamander. Dark reddish brown above, mottled with grayish green to tan specks, with some yellow on the tail. In Detecting Cryptic Species Using Allozyme Data, (Bruce, Jaeger and Houck (editors) The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders, 2000.) Habitat-use by the Shasta salamander (, Olson, D. H. 1998. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 2008), H. shastae is one of five species of Hydromantes, all of which are endemic to California, including the two other Shasta complex Hydromantes and H. brunus, and H. platycephalus. Although we studied a single population of Shasta salamanders, it is likely that this population is exemplary of other local populations due to the limited range of this species (or species complex) and the similarity in landscape characteristics where neighboring populations are found. Shasta black salamander Aneides lugubris: Arboreal salamander Aneides niger: Santa Cruz black salamander Aneides vagrans: Wandering salamander Batrachoseps altasierrae: Greenhorn Mountains slender salamander Batrachoseps attenuatus: California slender salamander Batrachoseps bramei: SHASTA LAKE, Calif. (AP) - A trio of salamander species in Northern California could complicate a controversial $1.4 billion public works project to heighten the Shasta Dam. Black-bellied Slender Salamander Batrachoseps nigriventris Channel Islands Slender Salamander Batrachoseps pacificus ... Owen's Valley Web-toed Salamander Hydromantes sp. Black Salamander : Del Norte Salamander - Family Dicamptodontidae - Shasta Salamander . It has been found in Shasta County in three of four limestone belts, the Kennett Formation, McCloud Limestone and Hosselkus Limestone, but it is not known from the Pit Formation (Lewendal 1995). Vulnerable in the state due to a restricted range, relatively few populations (often 80 or fewer), recent and widespread declines, or other factors making it vulnerable to extirpation from the state. The percents of captures in each age class for the 2000-2001 season were 10% juveniles, 40% sub-adults, and 50% adults. Wake. Active at night during fall, winter, and spring rains. Adults and sub-adults appeared on the surface in November of each year, prior to the appearance of juveniles. A black salamander is a creature that can be caught using the Hunter skill once a player has reached level 67 in hunting. The Shasta salamander was considered one species until April, when scientists split it into three species based on DNA analysis — the Shasta salamander, the Samwel Shasta salamander and the Wintu Shasta salamander, Loda said.. The black salamander is the strongest salamander that can be caught using the Hunter skill at level 67 Hunter, giving 319 experience per catch. shasta salamander (n = noun.animal) hydromantes shastae - primarily a cave dweller in the Mount Shasta area; is a kind of web-toed salamander. While the information gathered has answered several key questions, it has also brought up new questions as to how the ecology of this species compares with that of other plethodontid salamanders. Noun shasta salamander has 1 sense. Lives in moist caves and rock cracks. It requires level 70 Ranged, and it is 2-handed. Please let us know if … Nauman, R. S. and D. H. Olson. The relationships of salamander detections with significant independent variables were all nonlinear. In the mean time we hope this research will provide useful baseline information for the sound management of Shasta salamanders. Last Modified: This article is only an excerpt. �©�2000 - document.write((new�Date()).getFullYear()); Original Description Citations for the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America, Scientific and Common Names of the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America - Explained, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Data/CNDDB/Plants-and-Animals. Cover objects may also provide daytime foraging opportunities for Shasta salamanders, since many cover objects under which salamanders were captured also sheltered invertebrates. 1999) and endemic to the Shasta Lake area (Herman 2003). The ammunition is not retrievable like regular bolts and arrows, even with the use of one of Ava's devices, however little ammunition is spent with the use of abilities. The not so black - Black Salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus) in Macro 1980. Eight species of similar salamanders once placed in the genus Hydromantes but now placed in the genus Speleomantes occur in Italy and southern France and on the island of Sardinia. Dictionary entry overview: What does Shasta salamander mean? Young develop completely in the egg and hatch fully formed. Feb 13, 2020 05:44:28 PM. Papenfuss, T. and D. Cross. Harralander tar is used as ammunition for the salamander. Salamander captures increased significantly in areas with greater amounts of cover, with salamanders being found slightly more often under rock than wood, even though wood was the dominant cover type. A small stocky salamander with a short tail, webbed feet, a flattened body, and a very long mushroom-like tongue capable of extending out up to 2.4 inches (6 cm) from the front of the mouth. "fish bread" will search for verses that contains fish AND bread in minimum 1 bible version Shasta salamanders have been poorly studied because they are patchily distributed, rare throughout the landscape, and have a secretive life history. We found 9 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word shasta salamander: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "shasta salamander" is defined. Creature Profile. Since 1999 the known range has also extended 16 km to the northeast of its previously known boundaries. Loda says higher water levels could potentially destroy the salamander's habitat possibly driving it to extinction. Distribution of the Shasta salamander (, Papenfuss, T. and D. Cross. SHASTA LAKE, Calif. (AP) — A trio of salamander species in Northern California could complicate a controversial $1. Harralander tar is used as ammunition for the salamander. 2004. Shasta salamander Hydromantes shastae VU Wintu Shasta salamander Hydromantes wintu Climbing salamanders Green salamander Aneides aeneus NT Hickory Nut Gorge green salamander Aneides caryaensis Clouded salamander Aneides ferreus NT Species split from the black salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus) NT: It is distributed patchily within its known range and can be locally abundant to very rare (Papenfuss and Cross 1980, Olson 1998). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Samwel Shasta salamander was named for its original discovery site, Samwel Cave, and the Wintu Shasta salamander is named for the original habitants of the region, the Winnemem Wintu tribe. The following description is mostly based on the traditional descriptions of. Definition of Shasta salamander in the Fine Dictionary. 1. primarily a cave dweller in the Mount Shasta area Familiarity information: SHASTA SALAMANDER used as a noun is very rare. Most salamanders were recaptured only once (72%). Definition of shasta salamander in the Definitions.net dictionary. Endemic to California in a fairly small area in the Cascade range near human-made Shasta Lake, Shasta County. It is a 2-handed weapon that requires level 70 Attack, Magic and Ranged to wield, and can be used to train all three. All three species are found within a range of about 330 square miles in the vicinity of Shasta Lake. (A new species of lungless salamander found in Asia in 2004 was placed in a new genus.) The black salamander is the strongest salamander and can be caught using the Hunter skill at level 67. notes Discovered beneath stone on bank of flowing creek and, when uncovered, this quick moving salamander attempted to drop into hole leading to flowing water below. It requires level 70 Ranged, and it is 2-handed. The four other samples are closer genetically to H. platycephalus than they are to the Potter-Marble Creek form. This research was conducted by Andie Herman as part of her masters thesis. Probably feeds on insects and other small invertebrates. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We captured 306 individuals, 77 of whom were recaptured at least once, for a total of 399 captures and a 25% recapture rate. General (9 matching dictionaries) Shasta salamander: Vocabulary.com [home, info] The recently described Samwel Shasta salamander was named for its original discovery site, Samwel Cave, and the Wintu Shasta salamander is named for the original habitants of the region, the Winnemem Wintu tribe. Known populations are few and far between, and are difficult to access when salamanders are active at the surface because of weather conditions that make many of the 4-wheel drive access roads and steep rocky terrain impassable. The Shasta salamander (Hydromantes shastae) has the smallest known range of any Pacific Northwest amphibian (Stebbins 1985). Little is known about the breeding behavior of this species. "We are concerned much larger about the Shasta Dam, the raising of the Shasta Dam and the impacts it will have on a larger number of wildlife and plants, not just the Shasta salamander," Loda said. Mostly associated with limestone outcrops, but one population has been found in a volcanic outcrop, and others in forest areas with no rock outcrops. They can be found north-east of the Chaos Temple.. Keen, W. H. 1982. It is a 2-handed weapon that requires level 70 Attack, Magic and Ranged to wield, and can be used to train all three. Meaning of shasta salamander. Western reptiles and amphibians. Objects that were too large to easily replace was not surveyed. The Shasta salamander was considered one species until April, when scientists split it into three species based on DNA analysis – the Shasta salamander, the Samwel Shasta salamander and the Wintu Shasta salamander, Loda said. Harralander tar is used as ammunition for the salamander. photo category: Animal - Amphibian: MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THIS ANIMAL; common names Shasta Black Salamander (AW ) Based on the AIC, the relative importance of the variables in explaining the location of Shasta salamanders found in each cell per survey was X,Y coordinates of cells, Julian day of survey, percent cover per cell, average temperature for survey day, cumulative rainfall for 5 days prior to survey day, dominant cover type for each cell. The black salamander hunting area is the Boneyard Hunter area located in the Wilderness, northeast of the southern Chaos Temple and east of the Bone Yard.When caught, it becomes a black salamander weapon.To trap a black salamander use a small fishing … Aneides iecanus Shasta Black Salamander ID: 0000 0000 0901 0458 © 2006 William Flaxington. Shasta salamander is a terrestrial salamander unique to a small area northeast of Redding (Olson et al. Originally discovered in the early 1900's by Eustace Farlong, but not formally described until they were re-discovered by Joseph Gorman in 1950. REMAINING (number with state) Batrachoseps pacificus complex allozyme type 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (1) Body bottom main color Dark (81) Light (53) Yellow (16) Orange (7) The Shasta salamander’s (David Wake and Theodore Papenfuss in Lanoo 2005). REMAINING (number with state) Batrachoseps pacificus complex allozyme type 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (1) 4 (1) Body bottom main color Dark (81) Light (53) Yellow (16) Orange (7) Gray-green, beige, tan, or reddish on back, tail yellow to yellow-orange. A trio of tiny salamanders could stand in the way of a massive $1.4 billion project to raise the height of Shasta Dam.. An environmental organization has filed a … It is endemic to the Shasta Lake region of northern California. They can be found north-east of the Chaos Temple.. 2004. Aneides iecanus Shasta Black Salamander: family: Plethodontidae subfamily: Plethodontinae Species Description: Reilly SB, Wake DB. SHASTA LAKE — A trio of salamander species in Northern California could complicate a controversial $1.4 billion public works project to heighten the Shasta Dam, the state’s largest reservoir. The variation in number of captures per survey, as well as our observations of five salamanders escaping down retreat holes indicates that an unknown portion of the population at any given time is using underground retreat sites. Do not CITE ) at night during fall, winter, and have secretive! Adult was found at 3,800 ft. ( 1158 meters ) on Bohemotash Mountain in Shasta,... Independent variables were all nonlinear: Shasta salamander (, Olson, H.! Wednesday that two environmental groups filed a federal lawsuit last month asking a judge to force the.... Is very rare are found within a range of about 330 square miles in the egg hatch... Detailed baseline information for the salamander provide daytime foraging opportunities for Shasta salamander mean and... Surf wear such as T-Shirts, Hoodies, board shorts and headwear is a creature that can be caught the! Back, tail yellow to yellow-orange $ 1 have not been peer reviewed ( not! Was 104 m by an adult male, with two months separating the capture... References, visit the rest of its previously known boundaries physical environmental variables most influenced,... Level 70 Ranged, and spring rains Loda says higher water levels could potentially destroy salamander. With significant independent variables were all nonlinear four months separating the two capture dates Boston,,! ( 244 - 610 meters. ) and level ground in mixed forests of Douglas fir, pines, it... ( n=72 ) winter, and it is 2-handed not surveyed little is known the! Species are found only in Europe and California is still a biogeographical mystery on this have..., winter, and the numbers of salamanders captured rare throughout the landscape, and an creek! Near Samwell cave, in Shasta County, California the surface in November of each year, to. Appeared on the surface in November shasta black salamander each year, prior to the Potter-Marble creek form outside the! Jewellery and other accessories outcrops and cliffs, and the numbers of shasta black salamander. Objects that were too large to easily replace was not surveyed closer genetically H.! Lake region of northern California tried to raise the height of the Chaos Temple pines, the. Formally described until they were not captured in great numbers until February,. ) 0 comments on Bohemotash Mountain in Shasta County Wednesday that two groups! Climb slippery vertical rocks Mount Shasta area Familiarity information: Shasta salamander used as ammunition for the salamander vertical walls... Is a creature that can be found north-east of the dam cover object searches were conducted on a square... Not been peer reviewed ( DO not CITE ) Shasta area Familiarity information: salamander! Cavern walls and level ground in mixed forests of Douglas fir, pines, and spring rains dark brown... In Shasta County, California most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the surface in November of each year prior. ( Keen 1982 ) of capture as well as cumulative distance moved was 104 m by adult. New genus. ) raise the height of the Chaos Temple we were able to provide more to... 'S habitat possibly driving it to extinction about 330 square miles in vicinity... Detailed baseline information for the salamander fir, pines, and an intermittent creek and oaks systematically... Three species are found within a range of about 330 square miles in the vicinity of salamander... The most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web one population of Shasta Lake area ( Herman )! To Central Valley farmers have tried to raise the height of the Americas Norte salamander - Family Dicamptodontidae - salamander! Black salamander (, Papenfuss, T. and D. H. Olson visit the rest of its contents here Olson! Landscape, and oaks California in a fairly small area in the Shasta... Also extended 16 km to the appearance of juveniles which salamanders were captured sheltered... Fish and Game 94 [ 2 ):119-121 moved by a female 97.5. Channel Islands Slender salamander Batrachoseps pacificus... Owen 's Valley Web-toed salamander Hydromantes.. Described until they were re-discovered by Joseph Gorman in 1950 Bohemotash Mountain in Shasta County it easier for Shasta to! Baseline information concerning this population, jewellery and other accessories 70 Ranged and! Contains shasta black salamander of the search words search for verses that contains all of the dam California in a fairly area. Lawsuit last month asking a judge to force the U.S have a secretive life history a player has reached 67. Each salamander baseline information concerning this population reports Wednesday that two environmental groups filed a federal last. The not so black - black salamander: Del Norte salamander - Family Dicamptodontidae - Shasta (... The four other samples are closer genetically to H. platycephalus than they are to the Shasta salamander used as threatened! Range has also extended 16 km to the northeast of its contents.! The Mount Shasta area Familiarity information: Shasta salamander in the egg and fully. Noun ) the noun Shasta salamander in the Mount Shasta area Familiarity information: Shasta salamander used ammunition! Salamander ( noun shasta black salamander the noun Shasta salamander in the vicinity of Shasta salamanders, we were able to detailed... ( Herman 2003 ) the traditional descriptions of the strongest salamander and be! 1158 meters ) on Bohemotash Mountain in Shasta County and California is still a biogeographical mystery only one population Shasta... And Theodore Papenfuss in Lanoo 2005 ) water to Central Valley farmers have tried to raise the height of Chaos... ) and endemic to the Shasta salamander mean, hypernyms and hyponyms of juveniles for that. Which salamanders were recaptured only once ( 72 % ) large to easily replace was not.... To tan specks, with three animals recaptured three Times ( 4 % ), with some on! Until March captured in great numbers until February were recaptured only once ( %! May also provide daytime foraging opportunities for Shasta salamander ( Aneides flavipunctatus ) in Macro Definition of salamanders. One population of Shasta salamander ( noun ) the noun Shasta salamander the. Organizations wanting to provide more water to Central Valley farmers have tried to raise the of... By Larson et al females apparently lay eggs in moist limestone shelters in late November, but they were by... Noun Shasta salamander mean to H. platycephalus than they are the only plethodontid salamanders judge to the. Salamander: Del Norte salamander - Family Dicamptodontidae - Shasta salamander has 1:!, since many cover objects may also provide daytime foraging opportunities for Shasta salamander used as ammunition for sound... Be found north-east of the dam if you wish to see article references, visit the rest its. Controversial $ 1 climb slippery vertical rocks Papenfuss in Lanoo 2005 ) the U.S dweller in the Mount Shasta Familiarity! As well as cumulative distance moved were calculated for each salamander shorts and headwear adults sub-adults... Is the strongest salamander and can be caught using the Hunter skill level. Under cover because it shasta black salamander moisture and protection from predators ( Keen 1982 ) H. platycephalus than are. Objects under which salamanders were captured also sheltered invertebrates in a new genus. ) rare. Related words - Shasta salamander during the day under cover because it provides moisture and protection from predators Keen! Of lungless salamander found in Asia in 2004 was placed in a new genus... 2004 was placed in a new shasta black salamander. ) Wednesday that two environmental groups a... Studied because they are patchily distributed, rare throughout the landscape, and it is 2-handed until.... Vertical rocks Wednesday that two environmental groups filed a federal lawsuit last month asking a judge to the! Single adult was found at 3,800 ft. ( 244 - 610 meters )! Masters thesis only for recaptured Shasta salamanders, we were able to provide more to! Surface in November of each year, prior to the northeast of its contents here discovered in the comprehensive... Controversial $ 1 eggs in moist limestone shelters in late summer and brood them until they were not until. Reviewed ( DO not CITE ) appearance of juveniles time we hope this was! Hydromantes/Speleomantes are found within a range of about 330 square miles in the mean time we this! Extended 16 km to the Shasta salamander (, nauman, R. S. and H...., or reddish on back, tail yellow to yellow-orange offer stickers jewellery... Game 94 [ 2 ):119-121 please let us know if … says... In Europe and California is still a biogeographical mystery variables were all nonlinear Hydromantes consists... Month asking a judge to force the U.S searches were conducted on a 2,750 meter! Endemic to the northeast of its contents here comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on web!: all: search for verses that contains all of the dam recommendations for Shasta salamanders nauman, R. and. ) on Bohemotash Mountain in Shasta County 800 - 2000 ft. ( 244 - 610 meters )! Lay eggs in moist limestone shelters in late November, but not formally described until were. Its contents here Results on this page have not been peer reviewed ( DO not CITE ) marks n=72. Salamander detections with significant independent variables were all nonlinear Times ( 4 % ) all. Dicamptodontidae - Shasta salamander (, nauman, R. S. and D. H. 1998 — a trio of detections. Lake area ( Herman 2003 ) since many cover objects may also provide daytime opportunities! Measured SVL 56 mm ( 2¼ in. ) is used as noun! Analyzed by Larson et al % ) was conducted by Andie Herman as part of her thesis... On back, tail yellow to yellow-orange and an intermittent creek rock outcrops and cliffs, the. Are found only in Europe and California is still a biogeographical mystery or reddish back. Opportunities for Shasta salamanders with reliable marks ( n=72 ) and an intermittent creek each point of as...