Peat is one of the most important growing medium that is safe and cost-effective used in the production of horticulture plants. It is composed from white peat which is used to bedding for cattle and horses. Peat Use in Horticulture, Peat, Bülent Topcuoğlu and Metin Turan, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79171. Evaluation of water and nutritional consumption is very important for peat alternatives. The usage ratios of peat by country are as follows: 99% in Estonia, 99% in Lithuania, 92% in Latvia, 88% in Finland, 87% in Ireland, 87% in Denmark, 87% in Sweden, and 81% in Germany [50]. By volume, there are about 4 trillion m³ of peat in the world covering a total of around 2% of global land area (about 3 million km²), containing about 8 billion terajoules of energy. The effects of media components on the yield, weight of pepper fruit, ascorbic acid values, and total soluble solids were studied. Therefore, you can use it for loose soil such as sandy soil which will help its water-holding ability. Coco peat can be directly incorporated into the garden soil to improve water retention, aeration and decrease the risk of the soil fungus and root diseases. Peat for fuel has been extracted in Europe since time immemorial, and the systematic industrialized extraction of peat for commercial purposes dates back to the thirteenth century; the peat is extracted for the purpose of fuel usage but in the last quarter of nineteenth century, this trend has declined by leaving its place to coal. The reason is that the producers the needed dosages of nutrients for each plant’s requirement. Peat moss is a common soil amendment used by gardeners for decades. Comparison of peat plants and peat soils (%, dry basis) [35]. Allagnou from France was founded a factory to produce fibers from peat in 1884. Peat is used for domestic heating purposes as an alternative to firewood and forms a fuel suitable for boiler firing in either briquetted or pulverized form. Maceration tends to yield more uniform shrinkage and a denser and tougher fuel. *Address all correspondence to:, Edited by Bülent Topcuoğlu and Metin Turan. Peat is soft and easily compressed. The ascending amount of bitumens and ascending decomposition of peat is shown below Table 3. Because of that, synthetic agents are used in general in peat-based media to fix the problem [52]. Pressure of environmental groups has increased in order to reduce the use of peat by growers. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Omissions? One of the main issues of peat is wetting again the medium when it becomes dried. Peat, fuel consisting of spongy material formed by the partial decomposition of organic matter, primarily plant material, in wetlands such as swamps, muskegs, bogs, fens, and moors. In the recent decades, the decreasing usage of peats brought the ascending prices and costs and also produced some hesitations if it will have an impact on environmental problems. The transition to brown coal takes place slowly and is usually reached at depths ranging from 100 to 400 metres (approximately 330 to 1,300 feet). Hemicelluloses are composing the biggest part of peat. Virtually all rural households are now connected to the national electricity network, which relies partly on hydroelectric plants and on small and medium-sized peat-burning thermal power stations. The aeration and drainage is supplied when the macropores are larger than 100 μm in diameter, the mesopores are 100–30 μm in diameter for water conductivity, and the micropores are 30–3 μm in diameter to supply retention of water. Bonaparte Peat is also used in the composting process, as it speeds the decomposition of organic materials., National Geographic - Education - Peat: The Forgotten Fossil Fuel, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - Energy Use of Peat, peatland - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), peat - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Peat is used extensively as an appropriate media for big quantities of vegetables because of its favorable physical properties, slow degradation rate, and relatively high CEC [23]. "While oil, coal, and natural gas are exported around the world, few outside northern Europe are aware of this energy source. It is both sterile and free of weed seeds. The conditions seem like the development of mosses. Potting soil, or soil-based potting mix, is made from soil with other ingredients added. For wild animals and plants habitat, peat has a crucial importance to develop the quality of groundwater, and furthermore, it preserves the CO2 sinks. Peat is a spongy substance which is an effect of incomplete decomposition of plant residues in different stages of decomposition. Bogs are a type of wetland with a high acid content. Also, felt is made from this fiber matter. Most of the time, however, peat is a unique material. Peat moss as a soil amendment is known to improve the quality of the soil. The microbial degradation of vegetative material in peat leads to 10% increase in the carbon content of peat from 50% at H1–H3 to 60% at H8–H10. The effect on peat of plant is shown in Table 3. The peat is a very clean medium that has no weeds or pathogens inside and also has comfortable storage conditions and very economical to buy. Moreover, the mixed mediums containing peat have more water holding capacity in the root zone and create a more aerated environment. The destiny of the nursery and greenhouse production is related with the growing media quality. The function of humification in peat elemental composition percentage [35]. Mediums are used for seedling growing, seed germination, emergence rate, rate of growth, and quality of the seedlings. The growing requirement and need of soilless media for horticultural industry causes to find new media for plant growth from organic wastes instead of peat as a nonrenewable source and its ascending concerns for environment. For a long time, peat has been used for as absorbing urine in stables or as a great and dirty fuel. Outdoors, it can be tilled into a planting bed where the soil is not sufficiently friable. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Finally, further research could be done so as to determine the optimum substrate for each plant. To start a new garden bed, use a tiller or spade to mix a 3-inch layer of garden soil into the top 3 inches of native soil, then plant. For all these reasons, it is necessary to pay attention to the selection of the environment to grow seedlings. Contact our London head office or media team here. The difference between peat moss and the compost, Peat moss is sterile, contains only a few microorganisms, has acidic pH values, prevents soil compaction and improves moisture retaining. The ash is powdery and light, except for varieties that have a high content of inorganic matter. The minimum decomposed type of peat is called as peat moss which is light tan to brown in color, is lightweight as 6.5 lbs/yd3, has high moisture and holding capacity and acidic conditions between pH 3.8 and 4.3, and due to these properties, it has a clear and proper fluffed structure. In general, the tree and underglass cultivation and container shrubs use the greenhouse potting or nursery soil as growing media and peat becomes a substrate [21]. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In general, approximately 80–90% of a fresh peat sample is composed of water and the remaining of solid material. Peat moss doesnt contain harmful microorganisms or weed seeds that you may find in poorly processed compost. Due to this system, horticultural plants are increased by yield in soilless culture compared to culture of conventional soil. The development of peat is favoured by warm moist climatic conditions; however, peat can develop even in cold regions such as Siberia, Canada, and Scandinavia. You can also use peat moss as a soil amendment. In extensive agriculture for a fast production and increasing the profits of sales, ornamental plant nursery production can be the best example which commonly uses the nonrenewable resources. Since it doesnt compact or break down readily, one application of peat moss lasts for several years. The only active carbon factory which uses the peat as raw matter is The Purit (Norit) factory and is a part of the Cabot Corporation, nowadays. Updates? The degraded matters like hemicellulose and cellulose is shown at H9–H10. Hemicellulose has between 200 and 300 sugar units which compose long chains of glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid. In plant shipment, to line hanging baskets, and in propagation, the most used matter is sphagnum and there are some efficient substances in sphagnum to inhibit the fungi growth related with damping off. A mixture called “John Innes” includes some blends of loam, sand, and peat. The vegetative part of peat, and to less extent the microbial sources, includes organic residues [35, 36]. In the horticulture industry, the peat has three different forms that are commonly used as peat humus, moss peat, and reed-sedge. In horticultural production of fruity vegetables like cucumber and bean, the preferred medium is solid substrate all over the world. Traditionally, a variety of organic materials have been used as mulches or soil conditioners in order to improve the performance of plants - largely through improved nutrient provision and improved soil water management. The common media used for the systems in Northwest Europe and Israel are peat [2, 3]. Although peat is used as a source of energy, it is not usually considered a coal. 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