The attackers were able to take some combination of contact information, passport number, Starwood Preferred Guest numbers, travel information, and other personal information. Top 10 Most Prevalent Ethical Issues In Nursing. Later that month, Adobe raised that estimate to include IDs and encrypted passwords for 38 million “active users.” Krebs reported that a file posted just days earlier “appears to include more than 150 million username and hashed password pairs taken from Adobe.” Weeks of research showed that the hack had also exposed customer names, IDs, passwords and debit and credit card information. Questions so far? By Jonathan H. King & Neil M. Richards If you develop software or manage databases, you’re probably at the point now where the phrase “Big Data” makes you roll your eyes. Even if parental consent is required, this doesn’t mean that a parent actually consented. Editor, How to master email security... 10 things you should know about dark web websites. CSO compiled this list of the biggest 21st Century breaches using simple criteria: The number of people whose data was compromised. Researchers must ensure that proper arrangements have been made for the security and storage of confidential data collected in the course of research projects involving human participants. What is the Tor Browser? It also said that since doesn't store passwords in plaintext, users should have nothing to worry about. Yahoo claimed that most of the compromised passwords were hashed. Avoiding the snags and snares in data breach reporting: What CISOs need to know, 7 security incidents that cost CISOs their jobs, 7 overlooked cybersecurity costs that could bust your budget. Coercing an injured worker not to report a work injury to workers' compensation by threatening him with the loss of a job or benefits. Nissenbaum noted that some previously proposed mitigations are persuasive (for example, requiring that collected data only be read by machines or be subject to strict use requirements), and they may even be ethically defensible given certain types of conditions and assurances. The scale and ease with which analytics can be conducted today completely changes the ethical framework. Compliance and Business Innovation When the U.S. based non-profit organization RHD | Resources for Human Development decided to move its operations into the cloud, one of its top priorities was compliance. Chief among them was that the application vulnerability that allowed the attackers access was unpatched. Frustrated with their limited access to data, some researchers have begun creating companies or products in order to incentivize the public to contribute data to a research effort. The information was being sold as part of a collected dump also including the likes of MyFitnessPal (more on that below), MyHeritage (92 million), ShareThis, Armor Games, and dating app CoffeeMeetsBagel. Businesses can take several steps to tell if the data they have might be unethical — here are five of them. – Data Sharing / Data Storage. The online auction giant said hackers used the credentials of three corporate employees to access its network and had complete access for 229 days—more than enough time to compromise the user database. How to access it... 15 signs you've been hacked—and how to... What is the Tor Browser? Date:  September 2019Impact: 218 million user accountsDetails: Once a giant of the Facebook gaming scene, Farmville creator Zynga is still one the biggest players in the mobile game space with millions of players worldwide. Get the best in cybersecurity, delivered to your inbox. The weak SHA-1 hashing algorithm protected most of those passwords. The 4 pillars of Windows network security, Why CISOs must be students of the business. However, it wasn’t until 2016 that the full extent of the incident was revealed. But, it’s still possible to check domain name registrations or see when a business first appeared on Facebook when deciding whether to proceed with buying data. For example, data collection can be made inherently biased by posing the wrong questions that stimulate strong emotions rather than objective realities. Then in December 2016, Yahoo disclosed another breach from 2013 by a different attacker that compromised the names, dates of birth, email addresses and passwords, and security questions and answers of 1 billion user accounts. Delete a file system. The attackers, which the company believed we “state-sponsored actors,” compromised the real names, email addresses, dates of birth and telephone numbers of 500 million users. If a seller obtained data through illegitimate means, they might not want to be forthcoming with their name or other details. The code of ethics of the American Sociological Association advises sociologists to "adhere to the highest possible technical standards that are reasonable and responsible in their research…act with honesty and integrity; and avoid untrue, deceptive, or undocumented statements…and avoid conflicts of interest and the appearance of conflict." Date: March 2008Impact: 134 million credit cards exposedDetails: At the time of the breach, Heartland was processing 100 million payment card transactions per month for 175,000 merchants — mostly small- to mid-sized retailers. Kayla Matthews is a technology writer dedicated to exploring issues related to the Cloud, Cybersecurity, IoT and the use of tech in daily life. You can read more from Kayla on her personal website. Leading Tech Trends 2020 Cloud computing has become the norm. List paths in a file system. The more information a criminal has, the easier it is for them to impersonate victims. Nonetheless, she suggested that it is important to understand what is at stake in these contexts. 12 security career-killers (and how to avoid them). The smallest incident on this list involved the data of a mere 134 million people. Date: 2014-18Impact: 500 million customersDetails: Marriott International announced in November 2018 that attackers had stolen data on approximately 500 million customers. 12 security career-killers (and how to... SolarWinds attack explained: And why it... 9 types of malware and how to recognize... How and why deepfake videos work — and... What is the dark web? Whether it's surveilling or deceiving users, mishandling or selling their data, or engendering unhealthy habits or thoughts, tech these days is not short on unethical behavior. For example, each credit card number sells for about $1 on the black market. 1. For example, if a company sends an email to someone in the European Union and got their address from an entity that may have unethically acquired the data, the person could become wary and contact the company to assert they have never done business with the enterprise or even heard of them, so they certainly did not provide consent. The breach was discovered in January 2009 when Visa and MasterCard notified Heartland of suspicious transactions from accounts it had processed. Big data analytics raises a number of ethical issues, especially as companies begin monetizing their data externally for purposes different from those for which the data was initially collected. For example, a hacker might redirect the donation system of a non profit organization and have the money sent to an offshore account controlled by the hacker. The Covid Era and CISO Stress Even before COVID-19, senior technology executives, including CISOs, CIOs and CTOs were overwhelmed, and felt an increasing lack of ballast in their lives. Why should SMEs embrace Cloud ERP solutions? We also made a distinction between incidents where data was stolen for malicious intent and those where an organization inadvertently left data unprotected and exposed. File system. A federal grand jury indicted Albert Gonzalez and two unnamed Russian accomplices in 2009. How to... What are DMARC, SPF and DKIM? Another example of data getting out of hand, said Buytendijk, is data integration projects in the public sector, resulting in identity theft victims being persistently arrested. The company also paid an estimated $145 million in compensation for fraudulent payments. Date: July 29, 2017Impact: 147.9 million consumersDetails: Equifax, one of the largest credit bureaus in the US, said on Sept. 7, 2017 that an application vulnerability in one of their websites led to a data breach that exposed about 147.9 million consumers. Equifax data breach FAQ: What happened, who was affected, what was the impact? Information Business Even though digital information is evolving at a rapid pace, the world is still document-centric. LinkedIn acknowledged that it had been made aware of the breach, and said it had reset the passwords of affected accounts. Get tips on incorporating ethics into your analytics projects. How to access it and what you'll find, 15 signs you've been hacked—and how to fight back, The 15 biggest data breaches of the 21st century. Some sellers of unethical data are becoming more commercialized and set up websites or social media profiles to broaden their appeal. For example, if Gap Inc. were a client, and had supplied Retention Science with consumer data, that information would never be shared -- even anonymously -- with other retail clients. Having children freely disclose information not knowing who is watching and that they have actually allowed creators to store information is highly concerning. The same vendor was also selling information taken from other Chinese giants such as Tencent’s QQ.com, Sina Corporation and Sohu, Inc. NetEase has reportedly denied any breach. Unethical behavior has no place at work, and it is your responsibility to be forthcoming about disclosing unethical situations. Brands including PayPal have compensated intermediaries for buying back data that criminals stole from the companies. Unethical data is more common than individuals think, but awareness can avoid the potential risks of using it. They may also ask for payment through a method that’s hard to trace, like cryptocurrency. The breach was eventually attributed to a Chinese intelligence group seeking to gather data on US citizens, according to a New York Times article. Some went so far as to ... How to Tell If You’re Using Unethical Data, Information is at the Heart of Your Business, It May Not Be Sexy, But Strict Compliance Delivers The Freedom To Innovate, Deep learning to avoid real time computation. For example, if a company sends an email to someone in the European Union and got their address from an entity that may have unethically acquired the data, the person could become wary and contact the company to assert they have never done business with the enterprise or even heard of them, so they certainly did not provide consent. For example, with so much data and with powerful analytics, it may be impossible to remove the ability to identity individuals, if there are no rules established for the use of anonymized data files. Date:  2012 (and 2016)Impact: 165 million user accountsDetails: As the major social network for business professionals, LinkedIn has become an attractive proposition for attackers looking to conduct social engineering attacks. I highly doubt that! According to the company, lost data included email addresses, passwords and usernames for “a portion of accounts that were created prior to June 11, 2013, on the old Myspace platform.” According to Troy Hunt of HaveIBeenPwned, the passwords were stored as SHA-1 hashes of the first 10 characters of the password converted to lowercase. Many of the people that provide unethical data operate on the Dark web, so average internet users often don’t know they exist. Financial information, such as credit card numbers, was stored separately and was not compromised. Processing covers a wide range of operations performed on personal data, including by manual or automated means. Create a directory client. Inadequate system segmentation made lateral movement easy for the attackers. But, when companies buy what criminals have to sell, they incentivize them to continue. Date: March 2020Impact: 538 million accounts Details: With over 500 million users, Sina Weibo is China’s answer to Twitter. That number was raised to 147.9 million in October 2017. Secrecy is the name of the game. 3 UK Data Service – Big data and data sharing: Ethical issues This a brief introduction to ethical issues arising in social research with big data. The stolen data spanned 20 years on six databases and included names, email addresses and passwords. However, in March 2020 it was reported that the real names, site usernames, gender, location, and -- for 172 million users -- phone numbers had been posted for sale on dark web markets. Employees should have to thoroughly read the policy and sign it to commit to behaving ethically and reporting unethical behavior. Cybercriminals know data is lucrative, and although they don’t always sell it, they realize personal information is extremely valuable, especially if sold in bulk and the seller has lots of related information. The attackers remained in the system after Marriott acquired Starwood in 2016 and were not discovered until September 2018. Security analysts had warned retailers about the vulnerability for several years, and it made SQL injection the most common form of attack against websites at the time. If businesses or data scientists need to buy data for their projects, it’s best to do business with an entity that has a proven history of providing quality leads lists. During World War II, German researchers performed a large number of experiments in concentration camps and elsewhere. The breach was discovered on July 29, but the company says that it likely started in mid-May. Ethical Guidelines on Data Storage and Security (Note that these guidelines have been designed to prevent the unintended sharing of data - please see the document titled ‘Guidelines for Researchers on Issues around Open Access Data’ if you are interested in issues around the intentional sharing of data). People who buy data from questionable sources should be aware, then, of the possible dangers of unethical data in association with the GDPR. The United NationsFundamental Principles of Official Statistics, the International Statistical Institute's Declaration on Professional Ethics, and the American Statistical A… Her work can be seen on such sites as The Huffington Post, MakeUseOf, and VMBlog. Several components of it relate to getting consent before processing data. Taking that approach creates an ethical dilemma. Date: 2013-14Impact: 3 billion user accountsDetails: Yahoo announced in September 2016 that in 2014 it had been the victim of what would be the biggest data breach in history. So, if people who use data get offers to buy some almost immediately after a major data breach gets publicized, they should be cautious and inquire about the source. The timing of the original breach announcement was bad, as Yahoo was in the process of being acquired by Verizon, which eventually paid $4.48 billion for Yahoo’s core internet business. Directory . Yahoo revised that estimate in October 2017 to include all of its 3 billion user accounts. Data breaches dominate news headlines in today’s society. Twitter, for example, left the passwords of its 330 million users unmasked in a log, but there was no evidence of any misuse. ETHICAL ISSUES RELATED TO DATA COLLECTION AND STORAGE (STUDY OBJECTIVE 11) There are many ethical issues related to the collection, storage, and protection of data in databases. In September 2019, a Pakistani hacker who goes by the name Gnosticplayers claimed to have hacked into Zynga's database of Draw Something and Words with Friends players and gained access to the 218 million accounts registered there. MyFitnessPal acknowledged the breach and required customers to change their passwords, but didn’t share how many accounts were affected or how the attackers gained access to the data. The attackers exploited a known vulnerability to perform a SQL injection attack. Nov 12, 2018 | Resources. Create a file client. In November 2016, the amount paid to customers was reported at $1 million. The goal of the seller is to make a profit without revealing too much. Editor's note: This article, originally published in March 2014, is frequently updated to account for new breaches. Date:  October 2015Impact: 235 million user accountsDetails: NetEase is a provider of mailbox services through the likes of 163.com and 126.com. The breach initially occurred on systems supporting Starwood hotel brands starting in 2014. Date:  May 2019Impact: 137 million user accountsDetails: In May 2019 Australian graphic design tool website Canva suffered an attack that exposed email addresses, usernames, names, cities of residence, and salted and hashed with bcrypt passwords (for users not using social logins — around 61 million) of 137 million users. – Halliburton has been accused of overbilling the US army for food and oil supplies during the Iraq war, 2003. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): What you need to... What is personally identifiable information (PII)? The credit card numbers and expiration dates of more than 100 million customers were believed to be stolen, but Marriott is uncertain whether the attackers were able to decrypt the credit card numbers. Date: May 2014Impact: 145 million usersDetails: eBay reported that an attack exposed its entire account list of 145 million users in May 2014, including names, addresses, dates of birth and encrypted passwords. What is phishing? It was reported in that email addresses and plaintext passwords of some 235 million accounts from NetEase customers were being sold by a dark web marketplace vendor known as DoubleFlag. Date:  February 2018Impact: 150 million user accountsDetails: As well as Dubsmash, UnderArmor-owned fitness app MyFitnessPal was among the massive information dump of 16 compromised sites that saw some 617 million customers accounts leaked and offered for sale on Dream Market. Supporting CISOS, CIOS and CTOS That Are Overwhelmed During the COVID Battle. Now that so-called big data is providing access to information that would not previously have been discovered, what are the ethical boundaries around companies use of this data? The attacker also claimed to have gained OAuth login tokens for users who signed in via Google. Because of the breach, the Payment Card Industry (PCI) deemed Heartland out of compliance with its Data Security Standard (DSS) and did not allow it to process payments of major credit card providers until May 2009. Weibo acknowledged the data for sale was from the company, but claimed the data was obtained by matching contacts against its address book API. Date: October 2016Impact: 412.2 million accountsDetails: This breach was particularly sensitive for account holders because of the services the site offered. The same hacker selling MySpace’s data was found to be offering the email addresses and passwords of around 165 million LinkedIn users for just 5 bitcoins (around $2,000 at the time). out by the scientists Haywood and Pozos who, while acknowledging that the experiments . Not long ago, a breach that compromised the data of a few million people would have been big news. However, it has also fallen victim to leaking user data in the past. The company confirmed the incident and subsequently notified users, prompted them to change passwords, and reset OAuth tokens. About 3.5 billion people saw their personal data stolen in the top two of 15 biggest breaches of this century alone. Even when companies buy back the data that was theirs from the start, they demonstrate a demand that makes thieves feel validated. However, according to a later post by Canva, a list of approximately 4 million Canva accounts containing stolen user passwords was later decrypted and shared online, leading the company to invalidate unchanged passwords and notify users with unencrypted passwords in the list. Without consent are a concern, German researchers performed a large number of people whose data was available just. Some studies only use data on approximately 500 million customersDetails: Marriott international announced in 2016... 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