Amphotericin B and ketoconazole are used in treatment of Bipolaris infections. Bipolaris species were confirmed, and IV treatment was changed to itraconazole. are reported for above-mentioned fungal species. Identification of molecular markers for the differentiation of the human pathogenic Bipolaris species. Other reports of B. curvispora distribution A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. The genus Bipolaris contains several species. ISSN : 1608-4306 Dematiaceous fungi Cladosporium species, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Schizophyllum commune, and members of Scedosporium apiospermum complex are common saprobes in soil, and pathogens of plants and infective propagules can be air transported.S. The current study was undertaken to identify the most frequent fungus species that normaly infects wheat seeds and compared them with B. sorokiniana. Investigation of the morphological markers used in the species identification of the genera Bipolaris and Curvularia. Fig. A BLAST search comparing ITS sequences is the procedure usually used in recent years to confirm Bipolaris species identification (3, 6, 9, 16, 18). However, Manamgoda et al. 14-11 ). References:  Ellis (1971, 1976), Luttrell (1978), Domsch et al. They have worldwide distribution and can grow in semi-dry environments. The texture is velvety to woolly. (2000, 2015), Manamgoda et al. species in the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum, and Fusarium have been investigated for mycotoxins than those in the other fungal genera (Sivanesan 1991). Conidia mostly curved, canoe-shaped, fusoid or obclavate, rarely straight, 2–14 pseudoseptate (usually more than 6), germinating only from the ends (bipolar). The correlation between the morphological and molecular identification was 89.7%. In recent years, molecular biology has provided fundamental tools to study genera with complex taxonomy. (2013). Comments Species recognition in Bipolaris has been problematic due to a lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures, the use of few gene regions for species resolution and overlapping morphological characters. 2006; 18(1):19-24. Macroscopic morphology Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. For this reason, the use of molecular identification for the Bipolaris genus would provide certainty to many conventional taxonomies that result in confused binomial naming (Manamgoda et al., 2014; Tan et al., 2016). Wounds. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates. Wallingford, UK: CAB International Mycological Institute, 1987. No special precautions other than general laboratory precautions are required. Therefore, there is a strong need to identify a potential barcode marker which will help in identification of Bipolaris species. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. Seeds carry mycoflora which vary with the host species. J. Bot. C. intermedia and C. heteropogonicola were identified on graminicolous species. All extype cultures are printed in bold. Some new host plants are reported for above-mentioned fungal species. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. 2014). Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 Australia. Bipolaris is a dematiaceous, filamentous fungus. Moreover, identification key has been prepared for Bipolaris species with 3-4 distoseptate and phylogenetic relationships of some Bipolaris species based on sequencing of rDNA-ITS region is provided. It is cosmopolitan in nature and is isolated from plant debris and soil. (2012) have found that there is no clear morphological boundary between genera Bipolaris and Curvularia and some species show intermediate morphology. Regional survey and identification of Bipolaris spp. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. prasert stavornvisit . The preliminary morphological identification of the UM 226 isolate was confirmed by PCR amplification of the ITS, SSU and LSU gene regions, which yielded specific amplicons of ∼540 (ITS), 1,200 (SSU) and 900 bp (LSU), respectively (Supplementary Fig. It may cause nasal mycotic granuloma in the cattle [1753]. 1. The surface of the colony is initially white to grayish brown and becomes olive green to black with a raised grayish periphery as it matures. Skip to search form Skip to main content > Semantic Scholar's Logo. The anamorphic name Bipolaris has prevailed over the teleomorphic name Cochliobolus as suggested by Rossman et al. NOTE Brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, is a well-known fUngal disease in Brazil (RIBEIRO, … The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Kingdom: Fungi 1996; 22 (S2): S179-84. Each ascus contains eight ascospores. 371 Ciência Rural, v.41, n.3, mar, 2011. of B. curvispora are Melinis munitiflora (Beauv), Panicum maximum Jacq., Setaria spp. We compared our isolates with the other morphologically and phylogen-ticaly similar species in this genus such as B. australiensis (Ellis) Tsuda & Ueyama. Bipolaris may also be isolated as a laboratory contaminant. As well as being isolated as saprophytes on plants, Bipolaris may be pathogenic to certain plant species, particularly to Graminiae and also to animals, such as the dog [2387]. However recent phylogenetic studies have transferred several well-documented human pathogens, notably B. australiensis, B. hawaiiensis and B. spicifera to the genus Curvularia (Manamgoda et al. Fungi growth resembling Bipolaris or Drechslera spp. Comment:The genera Drechslera, Bipolaris, Curvularia and Exserohilum are all closely related. are ubiquitous in nature as nearly all of the species are pathogenic to grasses (Gramineae). Bipolaris species are important plant pathogens with a worldwide distribution in tropical and temperate environments. ***Have erect conidiophores. These authors recommend using a combined ITS and GPDH gene analysis for definitive identification of species (Manamgoda et al. **Conidia are septate from one side wall to other (not distoseptate) Abstract. Crop Prot. Surgical intervention was contemplated, but wound improvement was observed over the following 7 days. Bipolaris species are important plant pathogens with a worldwide distribution in tropical and temperate environments. Link/Page Citation. and Triticum aestivum L., in which dark brown necrotic lesions were observed. These data suggest that itraconazole MICs are variable and voriconazole MICs are considerably low [1864]. Bipolaris species germinate from both poles of the oblong conidium at a 180 degree angles (hence the name “Bipolaris”), whereas Exserohilum germinate from just one pole at a 180 degree angle and Dreschslera species germinate at a 90 degree angle from the central cells of the conidium. The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Morphological Description: Colonies are moderately fast growing, effuse, grey to blackish brown, suede-like to floccose with a black reverse. In the past, morphological differentiation of the genera relied upon a combination of characters including conidial shape, the presence or absence of a protruding hilum, the contour of the basal portion of the conidium and its hilum, the point at which the germ tube originates from the basal cell and, to a lesser degree, the sequence and location of the first three conidial septa. From the terminal cell of the conidium, germ tubes may develop and elongate in the direction of longitudinal axis of the conidium [462, 1295, 1495, 1548, 2144]. apiospermum can be commonly found in polluted waters, and Fusarium species are hyaline hyphomycetes found in soil, air, and water, and … … Bipolaris species produce a series of biological active secondary metabolites, which have or may have role in the pathogenesis. These two species can be differentiated based on conidial dimensions (Tsuda and Ueyama 1981). In recent years, many DNA sequences from ex-type or refer- ence cultures of Bipolaris species have been made available in GenBank (Manamgoda et al. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. 5. This group of Bipolaris species has already gone through a lot of taxonomic refinement for last one decade; still there is confusion in morphological characters. a thesis presented to the graduate school of the university of florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of S1). identification of fungi causing leaf spot on bermudagrass in florida, and sensitivity of bipolaris cynodontis to azoxystrobin . The predominant species was Bipolaris spicifera (70 isolates, 67.3%), followed by B. hawaiiensis (19 isolates, 18.2%), B. cynodontis (9 isolates, 8.6%), B. micropus (3 isolates, 2.9%), B. australiensis (2 isolates, 2%), and B. setariae (1 isolate, 1%). 498 include light reddish-brown lesions or lesions with a gray center surrounded by dark to reddish-brown margin with a bright yellow halo (Ou, 1985). 20 species. Shafili SM, Donate G, Mannari RJ, Payne WG, Robson MC. This property leads to the zigzag appearance of the conidiophore. Bipolaris colonies grow rapidly, reaching a diameter of 3 to 9 cm following incubation at 25°C for 7 days on potato dextrose agar. It can be difficult to identify Cladosporium in your home without professional help. species in the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum, and Fusarium have been investigated for mycotoxins than those in the other fungal genera (Sivanesan 1991). Brown spot was reported by Petrak for the first time in Iran (Safari Motlagh and Kaviani, 2008b). Initial identification of dematiaceous hyphomycete and bacterial colonization prompted initial therapy with intravenous (IV) voriconazole and topical silvadene, which failed to improve the course. Bipolaris spp. This group of Bipolaris species has already gone through a lot of taxonomic refinement for last one decade; still there is confusion in morphological characters. See the summary of synonyms and teleomorph-anamorph relations for the Bipolaris spp. [ Links ] ZEHHAR, G. et al. The perithecium is black in color, and round to ellipsoidal in shape. Teleomorph production of Bipolaris is heterothallic. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Bipolaris was observed in wheat seeds originated from different places under microscopy and then obtained 10 isolates from B. sorokiniana and six isolates from B. bicolor. The hyphae are septate and brown. The genus Curvularia contains about 80 species, which are mostly soil or plant pathogens. Microscopic examination helps to differentiate between the fun- gal species Bipolaris, Drechslera, and Exserohilum and identify characteristics of conidial shape, the presence or absence of a protruding hilum, the con - tour of the basal portion of the conidium and hilum, and the point where the germ tube originates from the basal cell.6,7 A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. Bipolaris species. (2012, 2014), da Cunha et al. After 7 days in medium PDA were observed the aspect of development in medium. associated with rice seeds in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil/Levantamento regional e identificacao de Bipolaris spp. Microscopic morphology shows sympodial development of hyaline to deep olivaceous pigmented, pseudoseptate conidia on a geniculate or zig-zag rachis. The thickened branches correspond to parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap support values 60 % and Bayesian posterior probability values 0.7. In addition, species of Aspergillus can produce aflatoxins (Pitt 1991). Correct species identification in this genus has always proven difficult, mostly relying on morphology and plant host association. 2012). This is the first report of B. cynodontis associated with rice seeds in Brazil and the preliminary identification of B. curvispora in rice by the observation of the teleomorph phase was confirmed. by . Among these, three well-known pathogenic species are Bipolaris spicifera, Bipolaris australiensis, and Bipolaris hawaiiensis. These species have inter-specific fertility, however only 1% of attempted crosses between species were fertile (Nelson, 1960b), but gene flow between related species does appear to take place (Turgeon and Berbee, 1998). The 1186 isolates were classified into 6 groups according to their cultural and morphological characteristics. The sesterterpenetype ophiobolins - constitute one of the most remarkable groups of these bioactive metabolites. For synonyms see Index Fungorum (2018) Background. One of several “graminicolous” species common on plant material, particularly grasses. The genus Bipolaris contains about 45 species, which are mostly subtropical and tropical plant parasites. Other reports of B. curvispora distribution rDNA sequencing has been used as a main tool to identify fungi and discriminate related species [7,8]. Regional survey and identification of Bipolaris spp. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. It is cosmopolitan in nature and is isolated from plant debris and soil. The genus Bipolaris contains about 45 species, which are mostly subtropical and tropical plant parasites. Bipolaris is a dematiaceous filamentous fungus. apiospermum can be commonly found in polluted waters, and Fusarium species are hyaline hyphomycetes found in soil, air, and water, and … Bipolaris hawaiiensis, often an aggressive species, has been isolated from cases of invasive sinusitis, brain lesions, peritoneal dialysate, sputum samples, and lung tissue. Fusoid to cylindrical conidia that are evenly pigmented, Germ tube originating from any cell of conidium (not only from terminal cell), Conidia which are larger at the base (obclavate in shape). Cerebral and Renal Phaeohyphomycosis in a Dog Infected With Bipolaris Species D. K. Giri1,2, W. P. Sims1,2, R. Sura3, J. J. Cooper4, B. K. Gavrilov3, and J. Mansell1 Abstract Mycotic meningoencephalitis in dogs may manifest as a primary disease of the central nervous system or as a part of disseminated Therefore, molecular biological identification seems to be the most rapid and convenient method of identification of the etiologic agent in this case. Chemically, sterigmatocystin resembles the aflatoxins and is thought to be a precursor in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin. Sign In Create Free Account. CRICOS Provider Number 00123M, ITS sequencing may be used to identify clinical species (da Cunha, 2012a). 3. (2007), Alcorn (1983), McGinnis et al. There are over 500 species of Cladosporium.Many other types of mold can also grow in … Search. (2012a). Genus: Bipolaris. 2010, da Cunha et al. A new species of Bipolaris from Heliconia rostrata in India Singh R1 and Kumar S2 1Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India 2Department of Forest Pathology, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi- 680653, Kerala, India Singh R, Kumar S 2016 − A new species of Bipolaris from Heliconia rostrata in India. A worsening course over the following 3 weeks prompted referral to the authors’ facility for further evaluation. In the present study, six species of Bipolaris viz. Order: Pleosporales Species Therefore, there is a strong need to identify a potential barcode marker which will help in identification of Bipolaris species. The fungus Bipolaris The ascospores are flagelliform or filiform, hyaline in nature and are found in clavate-shaped or cylindrical asci. Curvularia, Dissitimurus, Drechslera, Embellisia, Exserohilum, Helminthosporium, *Central conidial cell is darker and larger Seeds carry mycoflora which vary with the host species. Recent studies have shown that morphological identification does not correlate with molecular identification (Manamgoda et al. The poroconidium (30-35 µm x 11-13.5 µm) is distoseptate and has a scarcely protuberant, darkly pigmented hilum. Species recognition in Bipolaris has been problematic due to a lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures, the use of few gene regions for species resolution and overlapping morphological characters. 2013).A phylogenetic analysis of the genera Bipolaris and Curvularia has resulted in a re-alignment of several species. The abrasion progressed to a shallow ulcer with surrounding erythema over the next 4 to 5 days. In vitro susceptibility testing procedures have not been standardized for dematiaceous fungi yet. This is the most common Bipolaris species cited in causing human disease and a frequent cause of phaeohyphomycosis [ … Moreover, identification key has been prepared for Bipolaris species with 3–4 distoseptate and phylogenetic relationships of some Bipolaris species based on sequencing of rDNA-ITS region is provided. Family: Pleosporaceae Molecular Identification: ITS sequencing may be used to identify clinical species (da Cunha et al. Marijuana use has been noted as a possible risk factor. Bipolaris species i solates from filter paper were grown in V8 media to use in sensitivity assay to azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. Cochliobolus carbonum (anamorph: Helminthosporium carbonum) is one of more than 40 species of filamentous ascomycetes belonging to the genus Cochliobolus (anamorph: Bipolaris/Curvularia).This pathogen has a worldwide distribution, with reports from Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, China, Congo, Denmark, Egypt, India, Kenya, New Zealand, Nigeria, Solomon Islands, and the United States. and Triticum aestivum L., in which dark brown necrotic lesions were observed. 2012). Bipolaris species are pathogens, saprobes or endophytes of a wide range of hosts (Hyde et al. associated with rice seeds in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Moreover, identification key has been prepared for Bipolaris species with 3-4 distoseptate and phylogenetic relationships of some Bipolaris species based on sequencing of rDNA-ITS region is provided. 261p. However, this procedure may not be useful when comparisons are made with inaccurate sequences or when sequences of authentic strains of the species to which the problem isolate belongs have not been deposited. Species of Bipolaris, on Poaceae hosts, generally produce leaf spots, leaf blights and root ... that assignment was probably a misidentification. Dematiaceous fungi Cladosporium species, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Schizophyllum commune, and members of Scedosporium apiospermum complex are common saprobes in soil, and pathogens of plants and infective propagules can be air transported.S. World Agroforestry (ICRAF) is a centre of science and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. 2012; Yanagihara et al. by variety, growing season and production region of Rio Grande do Sul state. Conidiophores (4.5-6 µm wide) are brown, simple or branched, geniculate and sympodial, bending at the points where each conidium arises from. One of the four equally most parsimonious trees generated for Bipolaris from the parsimony analysis based on the combined alignment of ITS, GPDH and TEF sequences. was isolated and identified at the species level. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. Bipolaris Shoemaker, Can. 2014). Plant debris, soil. In addition, species of Aspergillus can produce aflatoxins (Pitt 1991). The colony becomes mature within 5 days. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. 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